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2006 Annual Report


Market Risk Management

Market risk is the risk that values of assets and liabilities or revenues will be adversely affected by changes in market conditions such as market movements. This risk is inherent in the financial instruments associated with our operations and/or activities including loans, deposits, securities, short-term borrowings, long-term debt, trading account assets and liabilities, and derivatives. Market-sensitive assets and liabilities are generated through loans and deposits associated with our traditional banking business, customer and proprietary trading operations, ALM process, credit risk mitigation activities and mortgage banking activities.

Our traditional banking loan and deposit products are nontrading positions and are reported at amortized cost for assets or the amount owed for liabilities (historical cost). The accounting rules require a historical cost view of traditional banking assets and liabilities. However, these positions are still subject to changes in economic value based on varying market conditions, primarily changes in the levels of interest rates. The risk of adverse changes in the economic value of our nontrading positions is managed through our ALM activities.

Trading positions are reported at estimated market value with changes reflected in income. Trading positions are subject to various risk factors, which include exposures to interest rates and foreign exchange rates, as well as equity, mortgage, commodity and issuer risk factors. We seek to mitigate these risk exposures by using techniques that encompass a variety of financial instruments in both the cash and derivatives markets. The following discusses the key risk components along with respective risk mitigation techniques.

Interest Rate Risk

Interest rate risk represents exposures to instruments whose values vary with the level or volatility of interest rates. These instruments include, but are not limited to, loans, debt securities, certain trading-related assets and liabilities, deposits, borrowings and derivative instruments. Hedging instruments used to mitigate these risks include related derivatives such as options, futures, forwards and swaps.

Foreign Exchange Risk

Foreign exchange risk represents exposures to changes in the values of current holdings and future cash flows denominated in other currencies. The types of instruments exposed to this risk include investments in foreign subsidiaries, foreign currency-denominated loans, foreign currency-denominated securities, future cash flows in foreign currencies arising from foreign exchange transactions, foreign-currency denominated debt and various foreign exchange derivative instruments whose values fluctuate with changes in the level or volatility of currency exchange rates or foreign interest rates. Hedging instruments used to mitigate this risk include foreign exchange options, currency swaps, futures, forwards and deposits.

Mortgage Risk

Mortgage risk represents exposures to changes in the value of mortgage-related instruments. The values of these instruments are sensitive to prepayment rates, mortgage rates, default, other interest rates and interest rate volatility. Our exposure to these instruments takes several forms. First, we trade and engage in market-making activities in a variety of mortgage securities including whole loans, pass-through certificates, commercial mortgages, and collateralized mortgage obligations. Second, we originate a variety of mortgage-backed securities which involves the accumulation of mortgage-related loans in anticipation of eventual securitization. Third, we may hold positions in mortgage securities and residential mortgage loans as part of the ALM portfolio. Fourth, we create MSRs as part of our mortgage activities. See Notes 1 and 8 of the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on MSRs. Hedging instruments used to mitigate this risk include options, futures, forwards, swaps, swaptions and securities.

Equity Market Risk

Equity market risk represents exposures to securities that represent an ownership interest in a corporation in the form of domestic and foreign common stock or other equity-linked instruments. Instruments that would lead to this exposure include, but are not limited to, the following: common stock, exchange traded funds, American Depositary Receipts (ADRs), convertible bonds, listed equity options (puts and calls), over-the-counter equity options, equity total return swaps, equity index futures and other equity derivative products. Hedging instruments used to mitigate this risk include options, futures, swaps, convertible bonds and cash positions.

Commodity Risk

Commodity risk represents exposures to instruments traded in the petroleum, natural gas, power, and metals markets. These instruments consist primarily of futures, forwards, swaps and options. Hedging instruments used to mitigate this risk include options, futures and swaps in the same or similar commodity product, as well as cash positions.

Issuer Credit Risk

Issuer credit risk represents exposures to changes in the creditworthiness of individual issuers or groups of issuers. Our portfolio is exposed to issuer credit risk where the value of an asset may be adversely impacted by changes in the levels of credit spreads, by credit migration, or by defaults. Hedging instruments used to mitigate this risk include bonds, credit default swaps and other credit fixed income instruments.